A Critical Discourse Analysis on Teachers’ Verbal Feedback Patterns in EFL CLT Classrooms

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21070/jees.v3i2.1262

Author (s)

(1) * Asma Dabiri   (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)  
        Iran, Islamic Republic of
(*) Corresponding Author


As providing feedback can have an effective role for the learning process, this study with a critical discourse analysis point of view in social scientific research investigated feedback patterns of four English language teachers on learners’ responses in four English Language institutes with Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach toward teaching and learning. In doing so, the classes were observed. The interactions were audio-taped and transcribed. The findings revealed that in providing feedback to learners, teachers gave positive feedback (approving and repetition), interactional feedback and corrective (negative feedback) in classrooms. Positive feedback as approving and repetition were the most type of feedback which the teachers made use of. The findings provide insights into feedback patterns in an EFL context and consequently they set up an argument to critically assess one of the most fundamental principles of CLT approach which is giving positive feedback to learners. Attention should be  directed to EFL teachers’ ideologies in providing feedback to the students to uncover their philosophy of teaching and learning as a clue to detect their criteria in choosing some habits of providing feedback than others and hence to expand this area further.


Critical discourse analysis; English as a foreign language context; verbal

Full Text: PDF


Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22 (2), 151-167.

Ellis, R. (2009). Corrective feedback and teacher development. L2 Journal, 1, 1-18.

Evans, C. (2013). Making sense of assessment feedback in higher education. Review of Educational research, 83 (1), 70-120.

Fairclough,N. (1995) Critical Discourse Analysis: the Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.

Flores, A. M., Simao, A.M.V., Barons, A., & Pereira, D. (2015). Perceptions of effectiveness, fairness and feedback of assessment methods: A study in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 40 (9), 1523-1534.

Han, Y., & Hyland, F. (2015). Exploring learner engagement with written corrective feedback in a Chinese tertiary EFL classroom. Journal of Second Language Writing, 30, 31-44.

Herschell, A.D., Greco, L.A., Filcheck, H.A., & McNeil, C.B. (2002). Who is testing who? Intervention in School and Clinic, 37 (3), 140-148.

Konold, K.E., Miller, S.P., & Konold, K.B. (2004). Using teacher feedback to engage student learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36 (6), 64-69.

Le L. (2010). Teachers’ immediate oral feedback in speaking lessons for 11th-form students. (Online) retrieved 10 June, 2010 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/32025892/Teachers-immediate-oralfeedback-in-eaking- lessons-for-11th-form

Lewis, M. (2002) Giving feedback in language classes. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center.

Nunn, R. (2001). ‘Language learning across boundaries-negotiating classroom rituals.’ (Online) Retrieved 20 August, 2010 from http://www-writing.berkeley.edu/TESL-EJ/ej18/al.html.

Sinclair, J. & Coulthard, M. (1992). ‘Toward an analysis of discourse.’ in M. Coulthard (Eds.), Advances in Spoken Discourse Analysis (pp. 1-34). New York: Routledge.

Tsiplakides, I. & Keramida, A. (2010). Promoting Positive Attitudes in ESL/EFL Classes. Internet TESL Journal, XVI (1), January 2010. (Online) Retrieved 16 July 2010 from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Tsiplakides-PositiveAttitudes.html

Vermunt, J.D., & Donche, V. (2017). A learning patterns perspective on student learning in higher education: State of the art and moving forward. Educational Psychology Review, 29, (2), 269-299.

Wodak, R., & Meyer. M. (2001) Methods in critical discourse analysis. London: Sage.

Yu W. (2009). An Analysis of College English Classroom Discourse. Asian Social Science, 5 (7), 152 -159.

Article View

Abstract views : 18 times | PDF files viewed : 25 times

Dimensions, PlumX, and Google Scholar Metrics


Copyright (c) 2018 JEES (Journal of English Educators Society)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.