CLASSIFICATION OF L2 WRITING PROCESS AND WRITING STRATEGIES

Imelda Hermilinda Abas, Noor Hashima Abd Aziz

Abstract


English for second language writing has developed greatly, from product oriented approach to process oriented approach. This implies that the focus of L2 writing has shifted from the final product of writing to the process of writing. Because of its own rules and conventions, writing skill is considered difficult to learn in a short period of time. Although it is a difficult skill, writing is essential for second language learners’ academic success. Second language researchers are still trying to find satisfactory answers to the how and why of the teaching of writing process to second language learners. More studies are needed to shed light on second language writing process area. This paper discusses briefly the writing process and the writing strategies employed by a few EFL proficient student writers in writing. It is found that the writing process stages employedin this study were prewriting, planning, drafting, pausing and reading, revising and editing which occurred non-linear and recursive. The writing strategies identified in the writing process stages were relating the topic to past knowledge and experience, taking the readers into consideration, talk-write, freewriting, outlining, listing, seeking help, using online materials, focusing on the mechanics of writing, and text organization. However, what works successfully for some students may not work well for others, and what functions well for one assignment may not be compatible for another.

Keywords


Writing process; writing strategies; second language writing; academic writing, English as a Foreign Language

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arndt, V. (1987). Six writers in search of texts: A protocol-based study of L1 and L2 writing. ELT journal, 41(4), 257-267.DOI: 10.1093/elt/41.4.257

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Flower, L., S., & Hayes, J. R. (1980). The dynamics of composing: making plans and juggling constraints. In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive Processes in Writing (pp. 31-50). Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Flower, L., S., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 365–387.http://www.jstor.org/stable/356600

Graves, D. (1984). A researcher learns to write. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hsiao, T. Y., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. The Modern Language Journal, 86(3), 368-383. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1192849

Johns, A. M. (1990). L1 composition theories: Implications for developing theories of L2 composition. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 24-36). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Kent, T. (Ed.) (1999). Post-process theory: Beyond the writing process paradigm. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Kroll, B. (1978). Cognitive egocentrism and the problem of audience awareness in written discourse. Research in the Teaching of English, 12, 269-281. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40170715

Leki, I. (1995). Coping strategies of ESL students in writing tasks across the curriculum. TESOL Quarterly, 29 (2), 235-260. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3587624

Manchón, R. M., De Larios, J., R., & Murphy, L. (2007). A Review of Writing Strategies: Focus on conceptualizations and impact of first language. In A. D. Cohen & E.Macaro (Eds.): Language Learner Strategies: 30 Years of Research and Practice (pp. 229-250). Oxford University Press.

Mu, C. (2005). A taxonomy of ESL writing strategies. Proceedings from Redesigning Pedagogy: Research, Policy, Practice, pp. 1-10, Singapore.

Mu, C., & Carrington, S. B. (2007). An investigation of three Chinese students' English writing strategies. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language-EJ, 11(1), 1-23. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/13130/

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Reid, J., M. (2000). The process of composition (3rd ed.). New York: Longman, Inc.

Riazi, A. (1997). Acquiring disciplinary literacy: A social-cognitive analysis of text production and learning among Iranian graduate students of education. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6(2), 105-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(97)90030-8

Rost, M. (1993). Learning strategies: Worth teaching? Paper presented at the 27th Annual TESOL Conference, Atlanta.

Sasaki, M. (2000). Toward an empirical model of EFL writing processes: An exploratory study. Journal of second language writing, 9(3), 259-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00028-X

Seow, A. (2002). The writing process and process writing. In Jack C. Richard & Willy A. Renandya (Eds.). Methodology in language teaching: An anthologyof current practice. Pp. 315-320. Edinburgh, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Silva, T. & Matsuda, P. (2002). Writing. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (pp. 252-266). London: Arnold.

Silva, T. (1990). Second language composition instruction: developments, issues, and directions in ESL. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 11-23). Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wenden, A., & Rubin, J. (Eds.). (1987). Learning strategies in language learning. Prentice-Hall International.

Williams, J. (2005). Teaching writing in second and foreign language classrooms. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Williams, J., D., (2003). Preparing to teach writing: Research, theory, and practice (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Zamel, V. (1982). Writing: The process of discovering meaning. TESOL Quarterly, 16(2), pp. 195-209. doi: 10.2307/3586792

Zamel, V. (1983). The Composing Processes of Advanced ESL Students: Six Case Studies. TESOL Quarterly, 17(2), 165-187. DOI: 10.2307/3586647. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3586647




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/picecrs.v1i1.505

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Proceedings of the ICECRS

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.